Can my removed virtual card still be charged?

Lets say if I sign up for a service which charges you periodically can they charge me if I’ve removed the virtual card I used initially?

I’m asking because a few weeks back I signed up for something and I deleted my VC a few days ago but today I received a notification that the payment did not go through because I did not have sufficient balance and NOT because the VC was not working. Would I have been charged if I had the £ in my account?

I believe merchants do not always get clear data why a payment was declined. You probably have ask support to look into all the details of the transaction. Have you contacted the merchant to clarify the situation?